Wikipedia:Citing sources

  • a citation, also called a reference,[note 1] uniquely identifies a source of information, e.g.:

    ritter, r. m. (2003). the oxford style manual. oxford university press. p. 1. isbn 978-0-19-860564-5.

    wikipedia's verifiability policy requires inline citations for any material challenged or likely to be challenged, and for all quotations, anywhere in article space.

    a citation or reference in an article usually has two parts. in the first part, each section of text that is either based on, or quoted from, an outside source is marked as such with an inline citation. the inline citation may be a superscript footnote number, or an abbreviated version of the citation called a short citation. the second necessary part of the citation or reference is the list of full references, which provides complete, formatted detail about the source, so that anyone reading the article can find it and verify it.

    this page explains how to place and format both parts of the citation. each article should use one citation method or style throughout. if an article already has citations, preserve consistency by using that method or seek consensus on the talk page before changing it (the principle is reviewed at § variation in citation methods). while you should try to write citations correctly, what matters most is that you provide enough information to identify the source. others will improve the formatting if needed. see "help:referencing for beginners" for a brief introduction on how to put references in wikipedia articles.

  • types of citation
  • when and why to cite sources
  • what information to include
  • inline citations
  • citation style
  • handling links in citations
  • text–source integrity
  • in-text attribution
  • general references
  • dealing with unsourced material
  • citation templates and tools
  • see also
  • notes
  • further reading
  • external links

A citation, also called a reference,[note 1] uniquely identifies a source of information, e.g.:

Ritter, R. M. (2003). The Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-860564-5.

Wikipedia's verifiability policy requires inline citations for any material challenged or likely to be challenged, and for all quotations, anywhere in article space.

A citation or reference in an article usually has two parts. In the first part, each section of text that is either based on, or quoted from, an outside source is marked as such with an inline citation. The inline citation may be a superscript footnote number, or an abbreviated version of the citation called a short citation. The second necessary part of the citation or reference is the list of full references, which provides complete, formatted detail about the source, so that anyone reading the article can find it and verify it.

This page explains how to place and format both parts of the citation. Each article should use one citation method or style throughout. If an article already has citations, preserve consistency by using that method or seek consensus on the talk page before changing it (the principle is reviewed at § Variation in citation methods). While you should try to write citations correctly, what matters most is that you provide enough information to identify the source. Others will improve the formatting if needed. See "Help:Referencing for beginners" for a brief introduction on how to put references in Wikipedia articles.