anthem: 'god save the king
location of great britain in 1789 in dark green; ireland, the channel islands, the isle of man and hanover in light green
51°30′n 0°7′w / 51°30′n 0°7′w / 51.500; -0.117
|official languages||english, french[a]|
|recognised regional languages||scots, welsh, scottish gaelic, norn, cornish[b]|
|religion ||church of england|
church of scotland
|government||unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|prime minister|| |
• 1721–1742 (first)
• 1783–1801 (last)
|william pitt the younger|
|legislature||parliament of great britain|
|house of lords|
|house of commons|
|22 july 1706|
|1 may 1707|
|1 january 1801|
|total||230,977 km2 (89,181 sq mi)|
|iso 3166 code||gb|
|today part of|| united kingdom|
- ^ monarch of england and scotland from 1702 to 1707.
- ^ continued as monarch of the united kingdom until 1820.
|history of the united kingdom
united kingdom portal|
the kingdom of great britain, officially called great britain, was a sovereign state in western europe from 1 may 1707 to 1 january 1801. the state came into being following the treaty of union in 1706, ratified by the acts of union 1707, which united the kingdoms of england (which included wales) and scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of great britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the isle of man and the channel islands. the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in westminster. the former kingdoms had been in personal union since james vi of scotland became king of england and king of ireland in 1603 following the death of elizabeth i, bringing about the "union of the crowns". since its inception, the kingdom was in legislative and personal union with the kingdom of ireland. following the accession of george i to the throne of great britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the electorate of hanover.
the early years of the newly-united kingdom were marked by jacobite risings, which ended in defeat for the stuart cause at the battle of culloden in 1746. in 1763, victory in the seven years' war led to the dominance of the british empire, which was to become the foremost global power for over a century, slowly growing to become the largest empire in history.
from the mid-1750s, the kingdom came to dominate the indian subcontinent through the aggressive expansion of the east india trading company, and until suffering defeat in the american war of independence, it claimed vast swaths of the north american continent through its burgeoning american colonies.
the kingdom of great britain was replaced by the united kingdom of great britain and ireland on 1 january 1801 with the acts of union 1800.